Range Description: This is originally a South African species, not native in Europe. It is spreading rapidly in the Mediterranean. It occurs in Europe since This relatively recent accidental import from South Africa (originally on imported Pelargoniums, it is believed) is starting to colonise the south coast of France and . Ecology, conservation and threats of Cacyreus marshalli. Species page, life cycle and photos.
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Eitschberger U, Stamer P, Our new goal is cxcyreus, species by My father first thought it was a Lang’s Short Tailed Blue. Sarto i Monteys and Gaberra observed that Trichogramma evanescens can develop on the eggs of C. Sammut, ; EPPO, Previous 1 Next. Adults are on wing year-round in warmer areas, but usually from August to May in South Africa. On the hindwings, there is a small white spot behind this stripe. Geranium bronze females prefer to lay their eggs on the flower buds of various Geranium species.
More mature larvae feed more-openly on the outside of the flower buds and will eventually marsnalli on leaves of the foodplant, where they have a preference for older and drier leaves. The following links provide additional information on this butterfly. marsgalli
One or several autochtonous parasitoids could develop in immature stages of the butterfly. They were difficult to rear in the plastic containers, cactreus feeding on old dried flower buds and leaves – even when fresh food was put alongside them they still went for the old cacyresu up stuff. The larva feeds on the host plant, damaging the host until it enters the pupa stage.
Plant protection and plant health in Europe: There are sometimes one or two small dark spots around a false antenna.
A taxon is Near Threatened NT when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically EndangeredEndangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for or is likely to qualify for a threatened category in the near future. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Cayreus section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Despite being considered a pest, the adult butterfly is quite beautiful. Look for the cavyreus holes of the caterpillar in flower buds and stems.
There is a broken line, which is parallel to the outer margins of each wings, as well as false eyes, surrounded by a bright sky blue and orangey rings.
This is commonly used as a decorative plant in villages and towns which is why the species is so often encountered in urban areas. The pest rapidly spread to the other Balearic Islands Sarto i Monteys, In the northern limits of its European range, it hibernates indoors on decorative flowers that have been brought inside to be overwintered.
Cacyreus marshalli Butler,arrives in Portugal. The flight is short in duration, leisurely and interspersed with frequent rests. With the flourishing horticultural trade it is quite possible some more could come into the country but I cacyteus it is unlikely that it could ever survive our winters, especially as it is continually brooded.
There is a large body of research on the use of pesticides on geranium bronze butterflies. Favilli and Manganelli and Trematerra and Parenzan have studied the life history of the cacjreus in Italy.
European Lepidoptera and their ecology: Cacyreus marshalli
Swainson Swainson, W. Currently, research is being done to find effective ways to prevent the attacks by these butterflies, but unfortunately many possible insecticides are too chemically potent on the plants that control of these butterflies has been difficult. Trematerra P, Parenzan P, References Top of page Baufeld P, Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 7 2: Eitschberger and Stamertherefore, excluded the possibility that the introduction into Mallorca was due to natural dispersal.
Field Guide to Butterflies of South Africa.
Butterflies of Europe – Cacyreus marshalli
They remain concealed in the flower buds and feed on the flower tissue, where they produce a cavity as a result of their feeding. The pupa is formed on or near the foodplant, or in nearby debris such as a withered leaf, attached by a silk girdle and the cremaster. Leach Leach In Brewster: Geranium bronze eggs are small with a slight green color that turns white then brown or light-yellow before the larva hatches.
We searched all the Geranium and Pelargonium and found many eggs. Species categorized as Endangered EN. Spreading eastwards into Italy and Greece etc.
Life Cycle Description to be completed. Confirmation of Cacyreus marshalli Butler, Lycaenidae: The predator has yet to be identified. Cacyreus marshalli This species was first defined in Butler as shown here and as shown in this plate type locality: The newly hatched larvae move into a flower bud by piercing a hole through the sepals.
It fed marshapli slowly for several weeks then perished. This species is bigger and dark brown, with plenty of white lines and a wide white stripe on each wing. Biology and Ecology Top of page Little is known about the biology of C. Plant preference and offspring fitness using wingspan as a marker for fitness were analyzed, but no statistically significant correlation was found.
Cacyreus marshalli, a South African Lepidoptera pest of cranesbill in Italia]. Other known species of Lepidoptera attacking Geraniaceae do not mine stems.
It is damaging on garden and house cacyrreus. This South African species, considered a pest of cultivated Pelargoniums and Geraniums, first arrived in the British Isles in when an individual was seen flying around Geraniums in a garden in Kingston, Lewes, East Sussex. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.